A lithium battery, strictly speaking, is a lithium-metal or lithium alloy anode material, and a non-aqueous electrolyte solution is a disposable battery. The lithium battery we usually refer to is mainly a lithium-ion battery. It is a rechargeable battery that relies on lithium ions to move between the positive and negative electrodes to work. Lithium-ion batteries use an embedded lithium compound as an electrode material. At present, the main positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries are: LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 and LiFePO4.
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have a wide range of applications, and the batteries we use on various electronic devices are currently lithium-ion batteries. For example, mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and even electric cars.
The reason why it has such a wide range of applications is due to its superior nature. Taken together, it has high energy density, high average output voltage, low self-discharge, no memory effect, wide operating temperature range, excellent cycle performance, fast charge and discharge, high charging efficiency, large output power and long service life. There are quite a few advantages, such as no toxic or hazardous substances.
Lithium-ion polymer batteries are the most commonly used lithium-ion batteries and are very common on a variety of electronic devices. This lithium polymer is an improvement of ordinary lithium ion batteries. It replaces the liquid organic solvent in ordinary lithium ion batteries with colloidal or solid polymer. It has good safety, does not break out, and can shape various shapes. The battery. Therefore, such lithium polycarbon batteries are used in various handheld electronic devices and pure electric vehicles.
Compared with lithium-ion batteries on ordinary handheld electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries on modern pure electric vehicles have the following advantages:
1. The battery capacity is large. The battery capacity of modern pure electric vehicles is generally very large. For example, Tesla’s Model 3 series has the lowest battery capacity of 50 KWH, which is equivalent to 50 kWh. This large battery capacity is achieved by combining a series of lithium-ion batteries in series and in parallel.
2. The charging time is short. Today’s electric cars generally have a fast charge function. Generally, fast charging can be filled with 80% of electricity in half an hour, and the subsequent 20% takes a long time for security reasons. But this is already very convenient. For example, the domestic battery life of pure electric vehicles is generally around 200KM, 80% of the electricity has been able to drive around 160KM, which is enough for short-distance urban commuting.
3. Long battery life. The lithium polymer battery of a mobile phone or a notebook computer generally has a service life of less than 5 years, and the battery capacity will be seriously degraded after more than 5 years, which cannot meet the demand. However, the five years are short for electric vehicles and cannot meet the demand, because the average vehicle usage time will be more than 10 years. Therefore, the batteries of pure electric vehicles are generally improved lithium-ion batteries, and the service life is generally more than 10 years.
Of course, in addition to the above various advantages, lithium ion batteries also have some disadvantages, for example, intolerance to overdischarge. When overdischarged, excessively embedded lithium ions are fixed in the crystal lattice and cannot be released again, resulting in a shortened life, and deep discharge is more likely to damage the battery.
Therefore, using a low battery can damage the lithium ion battery. Therefore, whether it is a mobile phone, a laptop or an electric car, it should not be charged when the battery runs out. Generally speaking, if there are conditions, it should be charged when the battery has about 40%-50% of the battery. .
In addition, lithium-ion batteries are not tolerant of overcharging. When overcharging, the positive electrode of the battery will be deintercalated with too much lithium ions, and overcharging for a long time may cause the lattice to collapse, thereby irreversibly reducing the capacity of the lithium ion battery.
In short, the emergence of lithium-ion battery technology has accelerated the popularity of electronic devices, such as mobile phones and notebook computers. In addition, the commercialization of pure electric vehicles is also inseparable from the development of lithium-ion battery technology. Lithium-ion batteries with large capacity and fast charge and discharge will definitely drive the development of the pure electric vehicle market.