QLC can’t rely on it? PLC research and development has been put on the agenda by Toshiba

The SSDs we use use NAND Flash as the storage medium. As the storage density continues to increase, the cost becomes more and more sensitive. Because the cost of flash memory depends on the chip area, it can be stored in the same area. With more data, Flash will be more cost effective.

Therefore, with the development of technology, there are Single Level Cell (SLC), Multi Level Cell (MLC) and Triple Level Cell (TLC), and there is also a QLC that has not been widely popularized.

Some small partners may not understand the relationship between them. In SLC flash, each storage unit stores only one bit of information, which makes reading cells faster, but its unit cost is higher; MLC flash stores two storage units per memory unit. Bit information, read speed and lifetime are lower than SLC, but the price is also 2 to 4 times cheaper; TLC Flash stores 3 bits of information per memory unit, the advantage is that the cost is much lower than SLC or MLC flash, more suitable For consumer applications, to QLC Flash, each memory cell can store 4 bits of information to store more information, and the lifetime will be lower than TLC.

After QLC, in fact, 5bit MLC flash memory has been under study, referred to as PLC, it has to control 32 different voltages, which is more complicated, but at the just-opened 2019 FMS International Flash Conference, it has begun to explore PLC flash memory. Probably, it has been put on the agenda. Although there is no concrete object, it is believed that with the wide-scale popularization of QLC, the speed of PLC research and development will be further accelerated.

Everything about the mechanical keyboard is here

Now the mechanical keyboard is not something new, and the numerous mechanical keyboards on the market are really dazzling, and the opening of a bunch of mechanical keyboards in Jingdong is also endless. Today, take everyone to see what the mechanical keyboard is, how to choose a mechanical keyboard.

01 What is a mechanical keyboard?

The mechanical keyboard is a type of keyboard. From the structure, each button of the mechanical keyboard has a separate switch to control the closure. This switch is also called “axis”. According to the classification of the micro switch, the mechanical keyboard It can be divided into traditional tea shaft, green shaft, white shaft (discontinued), black shaft, red shaft and self-developed shaft body of some manufacturers. It is precisely because each button is composed of an independent micro-motion, so the button has a strong sense of paragraph, resulting in a special feel for game entertainment, so the price is generally higher than the membrane keyboard.

The mechanical keyboard can be divided into a traditional tea shaft, a green shaft, a white shaft, a black shaft, a red shaft, and a Romer-G and an optical shaft. It is not commonly seen on the market today as the red axis, the tea axis, the green axis, the black axis, and the white axis. Different shafts mean different pressure grams and trigger distances. In short, different axles have different feels.


Red axis Pressure grams: 40 Trigger: 2.0mm; Tea shaft Pressure grams: 60 Trigger: 2.0mm;

Green axis Pressure grams: 60 Trigger: 2.4mm; Black axis Pressure grams: 80 Trigger: 1.5mm;

White axis Pressure grams: 100 Trigger: 2.2mm.

The most likely people have heard about the green axis and the black axis, the green axis typewriter, the black axis diamond finger, and the difference is the feel, let’s talk about these differences.

Red axis: the trigger method of straight up and down, we also call it the linear axis, which is the shaft body with the lowest operating pressure. It is very suitable for users with large input and large input, especially female users, and the sound is moderate, but it lacks ” The sense of paragraphs, and people can not feel the unique typing feel of the mechanical keyboard, and even after many users experience it, the typing feel is similar to that of the membrane keyboard.

Tea Shaft: There is a unique “paragraph feeling” when typing and pressing (the passage is slightly lighter), but the feel and sound are “meat”, the pressing force is small, and the noise generated is moderate, which is very suitable for general and input. The user, especially for the first time to contact the mechanical keyboard, and want to experience the unique feel of the mechanical keyboard, but also afraid of the angry white people around the people, a tea shaft mechanical keyboard is a good choice for you.

Green axis: for two-stage trigger, there is a unique “paragraph sense” (the strongest paragraph feeling) when typing and pressing. The simple description is: after pressing halfway, to continue pressing, the pressure will be increased and the pressure will be increased. A crisp sound is emitted, so the green axis can be said to be the main shaft body with the most “mechanical keyboard” features. The typing sound of the cymbal has both a sense of rhythm and a feeling of joy for the user, comparable to the thrill of a typewriter. The downside is that the sound is too brittle, and it is easy to have a great impact on the people around you.

Black axis: Typing and pressing are more laborious (similar to the red axis, no paragraph), not suitable for ordinary users, especially female users or users who need a lot of input. In general, the black axis is used in the game, because of its straight up and down triggering mode, short keystrokes, so it can be triggered faster.

White axis: It has been discontinued, not to say.

All in all: the red axis is the lightest and the sound is small; the tea shaft sounds slightly louder and has a slight paragraph sense; the green axis has the strongest paragraph and the sound is the loudest; the black axis is the most strenuous and the sound is small.

Recommended index: Tea Axis > Green Axis > Red Axis > Black Axis (only for personal opinions, please analyze according to your own situation)

03 key cap

Common key caps are generally ABS, PBT, POM key caps.

The key cap of ABS material is more in all materials. Of course, the main reason is that the process is mature and cheap, and the ABS material key cap can be seen from ordinary keyboard to high-end goods. The ABS keycaps are available in a variety of colors and can be made translucent to suit the needs of the backlight, which is beyond the reach of other materials. The key cap made of this material is the softest than other materials. It is not very hard and has a mild touch. It has certain resistance to oil, but it is not as good as POM and PBT.


POM materials have fewer keycaps than ABS and are a durable and simple material. Whether it is durability or firmness, POM is better than ABS, and its anti-oiling ability is multiplied. At least two or three years will not cause oiling problems (the oil will vary from person to person). The feel is between PBT and ABS.

PBT material, it should be the more reliable and excellent keycap material at present, no matter the anti-oiling, hardness is first-class, anti-corrosion and anti-oxidation effect is also very good, claiming to never oil. In addition, it is easy to decompose when exposed to water in a high temperature environment. It is because of this characteristic that a shop specializes in the use of boiled water to color the PBT keycap, and the color of the keycap after dyeing does not fall off naturally.

All in all, your budget determines the material of the keycap. You can buy it without worrying about it, but if you really want to buy it well, you should pay attention to PBT.

04 Unconventional keyboard

There are a lot of things mentioned above, but they are all common mechanical keyboards on the market, and there is another unconventional mechanical keyboard. The difference is that the general-purpose mechanical keyboard is the same overall, except for the added function keys, the same 87-key or 104-key layout, and the overall keyboard position is unchanged. Instead of a conventional mechanical keyboard, the keyboard will be integrated to a certain extent. In the end, the number of buttons may be extremely small. The keyboard layout is QWERTY/COLEMAK/DVORAK, which is different from the conventional one.

In general, this type of unconventional keyboard is targeted at a small number of special users. If a keyboard enthusiast wants to try it, it takes a while to learn and adapt.

05 Advantages and Disadvantages and Purchase Proposal


1. The most important mechanical keyboard is the shaft. The mechanical keyboard has a longer life than the ordinary membrane keyboard. The good mechanical keyboard has a life span of 10 years or even 20 years.

2. After the mechanical keyboard has been used for a long time, the change of the button feel is small, and the film cannot be reached.

3. The keys of the different axes of the mechanical keyboard are different, and the film has a single touch.

4. The mechanical keyboard can achieve no conflicts above 6 keys, some mechanical keyboards can be full-key without conflict, and there are fewer conflict-free membrane keyboards with more than 6 keys.

5, you can replace the key cap, to facilitate personalized DIY.


1, the price is high, because the cost is higher, most of the market is not cheap, of course, the top is not capped.

2. Although the keyboard has a long life, it is poor in waterproof and dustproof, so you need to be careful when using it. However, at present, major manufacturers have already conducted research on this issue and have improved, but still need to pay attention.

Buying advice:

1, the first time you touch the mechanical keyboard, please get started with the tea shaft, get used to fast, overall balance.

2. If the environment allows, the user who has the requirement for input can start the green axis. After all, the typewriter is not white, and it is really cool to beat it up. Again, the environment is allowed to start.

3, the black axis is carefully entered! For most people, the black axis is not a good choice. In terms of the author’s own black axis experience, the typing is too heavy and too tired. Due to the straight-up triggering method, the author is not very comfortable.

4, the most simple, the shaft to see the cherry is finished, the key cap author feels indifferent, because after all, you can buy it yourself, please refer to your own needs.

Why would the phone cancel the 3.5mm headphone plug?

Mobile phones are no strangers. From the past big brothers, mobile phones have been developing and become the brand mobile phones that people use now. Of course, mobile phones are just a communication tool. With the development of technology, mobile phones have become a collection of black technology. Entertainment tools, of course, all of this is in the direction of good development, so that the mobile phone continues to develop and progress.

Everyone knows that the mobile phones used by people in the past will have a headphone jack. Of course, the headphone jacks have different sockets at first. With the market demand, the headphone jacks have been popularized into 3.5mm headphone jacks, but now the mobile phone manufacturers are in one step. Stepping off the earphone hole, why should you make such a change?

First of all, everyone knows that there are more and more mobile phones nowadays. In the pursuit of more functions, what needs to be done is that the screen is bigger, the mobile phone is lighter and thinner, etc., so the major mobile phone manufacturers can only cancel the earphone jack.

Moreover, without the earphone hole, the waterproofing is actually more casual, the cost will be lower, and the waterproofing will almost become the next large-scale popular function, because the tragedy caused by the mobile phone entering the water is a common thing, and the waterproof function of the mobile phone. It will be more common, and the mobile phone has a longer life cycle.

Finally, if the 3.5mm headset outputs an analog signal, a better audio module is required to output a high-quality sound source, which greatly increases the cost of manufacturing the handset, and eliminates the need for component manufacturing after the headset hole is removed. Cost, you can increase profits by selling Bluetooth headsets. You know, Bluetooth headsets are several times more expensive than traditional wired headsets!

Apple has stalled the matter and is accused of using third parties to store user data

The plaintiff filed a class action lawsuit against Apple in the Federal District Court for the Northern District of California, accusing Apple of alleged false propaganda, claiming that iCloud data was “stored by Apple”, and the reality is that iCloud data is sometimes stored on Amazon, Google and Microsoft servers. on.

The indictment states that Apple violated customer fiduciary duties and legally binding contracts, using its status and reputation to sell iCloud subscription services to customers, misleading customers to believe that their data is stored in cloud services owned and managed by Apple rather than third parties. In fact, the business is actually subcontracted to Amazon, Google and Microsoft.

The plaintiff alleged that Apple “lacked the infrastructure necessary to operate iCloud” and could not fully control iCloud data during the contract period. Apple does not accurately describe the nature of iCloud services to existing and potential subscribers.

The Cloud User Agreement indicates that all data flows directly from the user device to Apple.

However, industry professionals know at least Apple’s outsourcing of iCloud services in 2011. Apple also confirmed in early July that iCloud relies partly on third-party services.

It is difficult to see the combination of Intel and AMD. In the future, NUC will adopt the unique display

I don’t know if you remember the Kaby Lake-G series of chips. The chip is the first to package Intel’s processor and AMD’s graphics card, starting with Intel’s Hades Canyon NUC. This product was quite amazing before it was launched. In particular, AMD’s “nuclear display” performance has reached the level of GTX1060, which is very powerful. And this is also a product of “integration” between Intel and AMD, which is very significant. However, in the future, NUC seems to give up this practice.

According to leaked news, the future NUC will use Intel’s nine-generation Core + NVIDIA Turing graphics card, and the heat will be re-customized. In the future, the NUC name for gamers will be Phanton Canyon, which will be powered by the 28W version of the Tiger Laket-U processor, and will also choose GTX1660Ti or RTX2060 alone.

Phanton Canyon will be launched between 2020 and 2021. Before the product appeared, Intel will still launch a NUC, named Ghost Canyon, which will use i9-9980HK, and is not independent. Graphics card.

Friends who are interested in mini-hosts may be impressed with NUC, especially when Hades Canyon is released, its small size has very good performance, and the masses of people who are eating melons are finally lucky enough to witness the combination of intel and AMD. This situation is hard to see again in the future.