Simple judgment method of motherboard failure

The motherboard is the bridge responsible for connecting computer accessories, and the stability of its work directly affects the normal operation of the computer. Due to the many and complex components and circuits it integrates, there are relatively many causes of failure.

The determination of the motherboard failure is generally done by gradually removing or replacing the board cards (memory, graphics card, etc.) connected to the motherboard, and after troubleshooting the possible problems of these accessories, the target can be locked on the motherboard. In addition, motherboard failures often appear as failures that are difficult to visually judge, such as system startup failure and no display on the screen. In the following, the author only introduces some common and easy-to-operate fault judgments. For some circuit and electrical fault problems, due to the need to resort to professional maintenance diagnostic tools and the author’s ability is limited, I cannot list them, and apologize here.

1, related to the motherboard driver

Loss, damage, and repeated installation of the motherboard driver will cause the operating system to fail to boot or cause the operating system to malfunction. Open the “Control Panel-System-Device Manager” in order to check whether the items in the “System Devices” are available. Yellow exclamation mark or question mark. Delete all items marked with yellow exclamation mark or question mark (you can operate in “safe mode”), reinstall the driver that comes with the motherboard, and restart. For example, the motherboard using Intel chipset needs to install the “Intel Chipset Software Installation Utility” motherboard driver, and the motherboard using VIA chipset needs to install the “4 In 1” driver to get better stability and compatibility.

2. Poor contact, short circuit, etc.

The area of ​​the main board is large, and it is a place with a lot of dust. Dust is likely to cause poor contact between the slot and the board. At this time, we can blow air against the slot to remove the dust. If the contact is caused by the oxidation of the socket pins, you can fold the hard white paper (smooth surface facing outward), and insert it back and forth to wipe it. In addition, if dust is attached to the thermistor used to detect the temperature of the CPU in the CPU socket or to monitor the temperature in the chassis on the motherboard, it is likely to cause the motherboard to identify the temperature incorrectly, which will cause the protective failure of the motherboard. Also need to pay attention when cleaning.

When disassembling or disassembling the case, the conductive objects such as small wires that are accidentally dropped may get stuck between the components of the motherboard and cause a short circuit phenomenon, which will cause a “protective failure”. In addition, check whether the main board and the chassis bottom plate are not equipped with small copper pillars to support the motherboard, whether the motherboard is improperly installed or the chassis is deformed to directly contact the motherboard and the chassis, so that the power supply with short-circuit protection function automatically cuts off the power supply.

3. Related to the motherboard battery

When encountering: the computer can not find the hard disk correctly when the computer is turned on, the system time is incorrect after booting, and the CMOS settings cannot be saved, you can first check whether the motherboard CMOS jumper is set to clear the “CLEAR” option (usually 2-3), If so, please change the jumper to “NORMAL” option (usually 1-2) and then reset. If it is not a CMOS jumper error, it is most likely caused by a damaged motherboard battery or insufficient battery voltage. Please try another motherboard battery.

4. Compatibility issues

If you encounter a compatibility issue between the old and new things due to a bug in the motherboard design or an upgrade accessory, you can download the latest BIOS of the motherboard to refresh it after excluding the BIOS setting problem. In addition, I also encountered compatibility issues caused by upgrading the operating system and later determined that the motherboard BIOS was outdated.

Trick one: Clearing the CMOS settings can also solve some “inexplicable” failures, you may wish to try.

Tip 2: When the installed hardware is not recognized by the operating system, set the “PNP OS INSTALLED” item of the CMOS setting to “YES” or “NO” and try.

5. The poor cooling effect of the motherboard’s north bridge chip caused

Some motherboards eliminate the heat sink on the Northbridge chip, which may cause the chip to dissipate heat effectively and cause the system to freeze after running for a period of time. In such a case, you can install your own heat sink or add a case fan with good heat dissipation effect.

6. Caused by failure of motherboard capacitance

The aluminum electrolytic capacitor on the motherboard (usually around the CPU socket) uses an electrolyte inside. Due to time, temperature, quality and other reasons, it will cause “aging”, which will cause the motherboard’s anti-interference index to decline. Affects the normal operation of the machine. We can buy capacitors with the same capacity as the “aging”. After preparing the soldering iron, solder wire and rosin, replace the “aging”. In addition, the loss of tools when disassembling the computer may accidentally smash the capacitor, which should also be checked and removed.

Damaged BIOS

Due to BIOS flash failure or BIOS damage caused by CIH virus, if the boot block (referred to as BIOS Boot Block in Award BIOS and Flash Recover boot Block in Phoenix BIOS) is not damaged, you can use the homemade boot disk to refresh BIOS (for the specific method, please refer to the related article on this site, which will not be repeated here). If the boot block is also damaged, you can use hot plugging method (very dangerous) or use a programmer to perform safe repair.